Analysis and measurement of serotonin

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, is an important signaling molecule in the central and peripheral nervous systems of humans. Acting through several receptor types, it helps regulate the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system and brain. Serotonin signaling has also been implicated in the etiology of several diseases, including depression, anxiety disorders, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. The present review focuses on the chemical analysis of serotonin in biological fluids and biomatrices and traces the development and application of early methods based on UV absorbance or fluorescence to more widely used current methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A brief summary of the biochemistry, metabolism and physiological roles of serotonin is also presented.

Abstract

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, is an important signaling molecule in the central and peripheral nervous systems of humans. Acting through several receptor types, it helps regulate the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system and brain. Serotonin signaling has also been implicated in the etiology of several diseases, including depression, anxiety disorders, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. The present review focuses on the chemical analysis of serotonin in biological fluids and biomatrices and traces the development and application of early methods based on UV absorbance or fluorescence to more widely used current methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A brief summary of the biochemistry, metabolism and physiological roles of serotonin is also presented.

Stress Degradation of Edaravone: Separation, Isolation and Characterization of Major Degradation Products

In the present study ICH prescribed stress degradation was carried out to study the degradation profile of Edaravone. For establishing QbD assisted stability indicating assay, the reaction solutions in which different degradation products were formed were mixed. Plackett burman and central composite design was used to screen and optimize experimental variables to resolve Edaravone and its impurities with good peak symmetry using a RP C-18 column. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. Seven unknown and two known degradation products were identified and characterized by LC-MS/MS. Two major degradation products formed under thermal degradation were isolated and characterized as 4-(4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl-4-(4,5-dihydro-5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one and 3-hydroxy-dihydro-thiazolo(1-(2-methyl-buta-1,3dienyl)-1-phenylhydrazine)5-one. The degradation pathways of degradants were proposed based on m/z values.

Abstract

In the present study ICH prescribed stress degradation was carried out to study the degradation profile of Edaravone. For establishing QbD assisted stability indicating assay, the reaction solutions in which different degradation products were formed were mixed. Plackett burman and central composite design was used to screen and optimize experimental variables to resolve Edaravone and its impurities with good peak symmetry using a RP C-18 column. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. Seven unknown and two known degradation products were identified and characterized by LC-MS/MS. Two major degradation products formed under thermal degradation were isolated and characterized as 4-(4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl-4-(4,5-dihydro-5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one and 3-hydroxy-dihydro-thiazolo(1-(2-methyl-buta-1,3dienyl)-1-phenylhydrazine)5-one. The degradation pathways of degradants were proposed based on m/z values.

Comparison of plasma pharmacokinetics of Tanreqing solution between intratracheal aerosolization and intravenous injection in rats

A rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of baicalin, oroxylin A-7-O-β-d-glucoronide and chlorogenic acid in rats plasma, and applied to comparison of pharmacokinetics of Tanreqing solution between intratracheal aerosolization and intravenous injection. Results of the analytical method validation assay showed high sensitivity, accuracy and suitable recovery. Results of pharmacokinetics showed similar decline phases for baicalin, oroxylin A-7-O-β-d-glucoronide and chlorogenic acid in two different delivery routes. The half-lives of intratracheal aerosolization and intravenous injection were 0.90 and 1.22 h for baicalin, 0.47 and 0.17 h for oroxylin A-7-O-β-d-glucoronide and 0.22 and 0.13 h for chlorogenic acid, and this implies that compounds were retained in the lung for a relatively short time. This study was the first to provide important pharmacokinetics information for traditional Chinese medicine delivery to the lung.

Abstract

A rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of baicalin, oroxylin A-7-O-β-d-glucoronide and chlorogenic acid in rats plasma, and applied to comparison of pharmacokinetics of Tanreqing solution between intratracheal aerosolization and intravenous injection. Results of the analytical method validation assay showed high sensitivity, accuracy and suitable recovery. Results of pharmacokinetics showed similar decline phases for baicalin, oroxylin A-7-O-β-d-glucoronide and chlorogenic acid in two different delivery routes. The half-lives of intratracheal aerosolization and intravenous injection were 0.90 and 1.22 h for baicalin, 0.47 and 0.17 h for oroxylin A-7-O-β-d-glucoronide and 0.22 and 0.13 h for chlorogenic acid, and this implies that compounds were retained in the lung for a relatively short time. This study was the first to provide important pharmacokinetics information for traditional Chinese medicine delivery to the lung.

A sensitive LC–MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of geniposide and its active metabolite genipin in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study

Genipin (GP), an active metabolite of geniposide (GE), exhibits more potent pharmacological effects than its parent compound. In this paper, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of GE and GP in rat plasma. We found that GP degraded rapidly in rat plasma at room temperature as a result of irreversible binding with the endogenous nucleophiles in plasma. GP was stable when the sample’s pH was ≤4.0. The degradation of GP in rat plasma was well prevented by immediate addition of 5% glacial acetic acid to the freshly collected plasma. The detection was performed on a tandem mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization source in negative mode. Quantification was conducted by multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions [M + CH3COO]− m/z 447.3 225.3 for GE and [M − H]− m/z 225.2 123.1 for GP. The method exhibited high sensitivity (LLOQ 1 ng/mL for GE and 0.2 ng/mL for GP) by selecting the acetate adduct ions as the precursor ions for GE. The robust developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats after oral administration of GE.

Abstract

Genipin (GP), an active metabolite of geniposide (GE), exhibits more potent pharmacological effects than its parent compound. In this paper, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of GE and GP in rat plasma. We found that GP degraded rapidly in rat plasma at room temperature as a result of irreversible binding with the endogenous nucleophiles in plasma. GP was stable when the sample's pH was ≤4.0. The degradation of GP in rat plasma was well prevented by immediate addition of 5% glacial acetic acid to the freshly collected plasma. The detection was performed on a tandem mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization source in negative mode. Quantification was conducted by multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions [M + CH3COO] m/z 447.3 [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] 225.3 for GE and [M − H] m/z 225.2 [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] 123.1 for GP. The method exhibited high sensitivity (LLOQ 1 ng/mL for GE and 0.2 ng/mL for GP) by selecting the acetate adduct ions as the precursor ions for GE. The robust developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats after oral administration of GE.

Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of lisinopril in human plasma by magnetic solid-phase extraction and pre-column derivatization

A sensitive, reliable and simple HPLC method was developed for the determination of lisinopril in human plasma. The method consists of extraction and clean-up steps based on magnetic solid-phase extraction and pre-column derivatization with a fluorescent reagent. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol–sodium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 3.0; 0.005 m; 75:25, v/v). The flow rate was set at 0.7 mL/min. Fluorescence detection was performed at 470nm excitation and 530nm emission wavelengths. Total chromatography run time was 5 min. The average extraction recovery of lisinopril and fluvoxamine (internal standard) was ≥82.8%. The limits of detection and quantification were determined as 1 and 3 ng/mL respectively. The method exhibited a linear calibration line over the concentration range of 3–1000 ng/mL with coefficient of determination (r2) of ≥0.98. The within-run and between-run precisions were satisfactory with values of CV of 1.8–12.8% (accuracy from 99.2 to 94.7%) and 2.4–13.7% (accuracy from 99.5 to 92.2%), respectively. These developments led to considerable improvement in method sensitivity and reliability. The method was validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Therefore, it can be considered as a suitable method for determination of lisinopril in plasma samples.

Abstract

A sensitive, reliable and simple HPLC method was developed for the determination of lisinopril in human plasma. The method consists of extraction and clean-up steps based on magnetic solid-phase extraction and pre-column derivatization with a fluorescent reagent. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol–sodium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 3.0; 0.005 m; 75:25, v/v). The flow rate was set at 0.7 mL/min. Fluorescence detection was performed at 470nm excitation and 530nm emission wavelengths. Total chromatography run time was 5 min. The average extraction recovery of lisinopril and fluvoxamine (internal standard) was ≥82.8%. The limits of detection and quantification were determined as 1 and 3 ng/mL respectively. The method exhibited a linear calibration line over the concentration range of 3–1000 ng/mL with coefficient of determination (r2) of ≥0.98. The within-run and between-run precisions were satisfactory with values of CV of 1.8–12.8% (accuracy from 99.2 to 94.7%) and 2.4–13.7% (accuracy from 99.5 to 92.2%), respectively. These developments led to considerable improvement in method sensitivity and reliability. The method was validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Therefore, it can be considered as a suitable method for determination of lisinopril in plasma samples.

Sample preparation for large-scale bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatographic techniques

Quality of the analytical data obtained for large-scale and long term bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatography depends on a number of experimental factors including the choice of sample preparation method. This review discusses this tedious part of bioanalytical studies, applied to large-scale samples and using liquid chromatography coupled with different detector types as core analytical technique. The main sample preparation methods included in this paper are protein precipitation, liquid–liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, derivatization and their versions. They are discussed by analytical performances, fields of applications, advantages and disadvantages. The cited literature covers mainly the analytical achievements during the last decade, although several previous papers became more valuable in time and they are included in this review.

Abstract

Quality of the analytical data obtained for large-scale and long term bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatography depends on a number of experimental factors including the choice of sample preparation method. This review discusses this tedious part of bioanalytical studies, applied to large-scale samples and using liquid chromatography coupled with different detector types as core analytical technique. The main sample preparation methods included in this paper are protein precipitation, liquid–liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, derivatization and their versions. They are discussed by analytical performances, fields of applications, advantages and disadvantages. The cited literature covers mainly the analytical achievements during the last decade, although several previous papers became more valuable in time and they are included in this review.

Combined Metabolomic and Correlation Networks Analyses Reveal Fumarase Insufficiency Altered Amino Acids Metabolism

Fumarase catalyzes the interconversion of fumarate and L-malate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fumarase insufficiencies were associated with increased level of fumarate and decreased level of malate and exacerbated salt-induced hypertension. To gain insights into the metabolism profiles that induced by fumarase insufficiency and identify key regulatory metabolites, we applied a GC–MS based metabolomics platform coupled with a network approach to analyze fumarase insufficient HUVEC cells and negative controls. A total of 24 altered metabolites involved in 7 metabolic pathways were identified as significantly altered, and enriched for the biological module of amino acids metabolism. In addition, Pearson correlation network analysis revealed that fumaric acid, L-malic acid, L-aspartic acid, glycine and L-glutamic acid were hub metabolites according to Pagerank based on their three centrality indices. ALT and GDH activities increased significantly in fumarase deficiency HUVEC cells. These results confirmed that fumarase insufficiency altered amino acid metabolism. The combination of metabolomics and network methods would provide another perspective on expounding the molecular mechanism at metabolomics level.

Abstract

Fumarase catalyzes the interconversion of fumarate and L-malate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fumarase insufficiencies were associated with increased level of fumarate and decreased level of malate and exacerbated salt-induced hypertension. To gain insights into the metabolism profiles that induced by fumarase insufficiency and identify key regulatory metabolites, we applied a GC–MS based metabolomics platform coupled with a network approach to analyze fumarase insufficient HUVEC cells and negative controls. A total of 24 altered metabolites involved in 7 metabolic pathways were identified as significantly altered, and enriched for the biological module of amino acids metabolism. In addition, Pearson correlation network analysis revealed that fumaric acid, L-malic acid, L-aspartic acid, glycine and L-glutamic acid were hub metabolites according to Pagerank based on their three centrality indices. ALT and GDH activities increased significantly in fumarase deficiency HUVEC cells. These results confirmed that fumarase insufficiency altered amino acid metabolism. The combination of metabolomics and network methods would provide another perspective on expounding the molecular mechanism at metabolomics level.

Chemical interaction between Lilium brownii and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, the herbal constituents of Baihe Zhimu decoction, by liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer

During the course of decoction, the components of herbal formula interact with each other, such that chemical extraction characteristics are altered. The crude drugs, Lilium brownii (Baihe) and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae (Zhimu), are the herbal constituents of Baihe Zhimu decoction, a traditional herbal formula. To investigate the chemical interaction between Baihe and Zhimu when decocting together, eight marker components in Baihe Zhimu decoction were simultaneously characterized and quantified in one run by a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer in the multiple reactions monitoring–information dependent acquisition–enhanced product ion mode. The results showed that Zhimu significantly suppressed the extraction of phenolic glycosides (the components from Baihe) when co-decocting, and Baihe clearly suppressed the extraction of xanthones and steroidal saponins (the components from Zhimu). Overall, the presently developed method would be a preferred candidate for the investigation of the chemical interaction between herbal medicines.

Abstract

During the course of decoction, the components of herbal formula interact with each other, such that chemical extraction characteristics are altered. The crude drugs, Lilium brownii (Baihe) and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae (Zhimu), are the herbal constituents of Baihe Zhimu decoction, a traditional herbal formula. To investigate the chemical interaction between Baihe and Zhimu when decocting together, eight marker components in Baihe Zhimu decoction were simultaneously characterized and quantified in one run by a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer in the multiple reactions monitoring–information dependent acquisition–enhanced product ion mode. The results showed that Zhimu significantly suppressed the extraction of phenolic glycosides (the components from Baihe) when co-decocting, and Baihe clearly suppressed the extraction of xanthones and steroidal saponins (the components from Zhimu). Overall, the presently developed method would be a preferred candidate for the investigation of the chemical interaction between herbal medicines.

Toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine after the oral administration of Biqi capsule to rats by RRLC–MS/MS

Biqi capsule is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula that has been widely applied for the clinical treatment of such diseases as rheumatoid arthritis, scapulohumeral periarthritis and cervical spondylopathy. However, there is concern regarding the toxicity of Biqi capsule owing to its active ingredients, strychnine and brucine. To investigate the toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine after oral administration of Biqi capsule to rats, a sensitive and simple rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to determine the levels of strychnine and brucine in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Capcell Pak C18 MG II (3.0 μm, 2.0 × 35 mm) column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid as the mobile phase. The method was validated over the range of 0.25–250 ng/mL for strychnine and 0.025–25 ng/mL for brucine. The intra- and inter-day accuracies of strychnine and brucine in rat plasma were 100.3–106.6 and 90.75–106.1% respectively, and the precisions were within 14.2%. The established method was successfully applied to the toxicokinetic study of strychnine and brucine after single and multiple oral administration of Biqi capsule to male and female rats at 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 g/kg doses. The results showed different toxicokinetic characteristics in the different groups.

Abstract

Biqi capsule is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula that has been widely applied for the clinical treatment of such diseases as rheumatoid arthritis, scapulohumeral periarthritis and cervical spondylopathy. However, there is concern regarding the toxicity of Biqi capsule owing to its active ingredients, strychnine and brucine. To investigate the toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine after oral administration of Biqi capsule to rats, a sensitive and simple rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to determine the levels of strychnine and brucine in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Capcell Pak C18 MG II (3.0 μm, 2.0 × 35 mm) column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid as the mobile phase. The method was validated over the range of 0.25–250 ng/mL for strychnine and 0.025–25 ng/mL for brucine. The intra- and inter-day accuracies of strychnine and brucine in rat plasma were 100.3–106.6 and 90.75–106.1% respectively, and the precisions were within 14.2%. The established method was successfully applied to the toxicokinetic study of strychnine and brucine after single and multiple oral administration of Biqi capsule to male and female rats at 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 g/kg doses. The results showed different toxicokinetic characteristics in the different groups.

Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of three flavonoid glycosides in rat plasma by LC–MS/MS after oral administration of Rubus chingii Hu extract

A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and tiliroside in rat plasma. Plasma samples were deproteinized with methanol and separated on a Hypersil Gold C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, i.d., 3.0 μm) using gradient elution with the mobile phase of water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Mass spectrometric detection was performed with negative ion electrospray ionization in selected reaction monitoring mode. All analytes showed good linearity over their investigated concentration ranges (r2 > 0.99). The lower limit of quantification was 1.0 ng/mL for isoquercitrin and 2.0 ng/mL for kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and tiliroside, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precisions were <8.2% and accuracy ranged from −11.5 to 9.7%. The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were >80.4%. The assay was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetic study of the three ingredients after oral administration of Rubus chingii Hu to rats.

Abstract

A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and tiliroside in rat plasma. Plasma samples were deproteinized with methanol and separated on a Hypersil Gold C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, i.d., 3.0 μm) using gradient elution with the mobile phase of water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Mass spectrometric detection was performed with negative ion electrospray ionization in selected reaction monitoring mode. All analytes showed good linearity over their investigated concentration ranges (r2 > 0.99). The lower limit of quantification was 1.0 ng/mL for isoquercitrin and 2.0 ng/mL for kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and tiliroside, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precisions were <8.2% and accuracy ranged from −11.5 to 9.7%. The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were >80.4%. The assay was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetic study of the three ingredients after oral administration of Rubus chingii Hu to rats.

HPLC–MS/MS analysis of peramivir in rat plasma: Elimination of matrix effect using the phospholipid-removal solid-phase extraction method

A simple HPLC–MS/MS method has been developed for the determination of peramivir in rat plasma in the present study. The analytes were separated on a C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source was applied for the detection. A phospholipid-free cartridge solid-phase extraction was used to pretreat the plasma and eliminate the endogenous phospholipid. The in-source collision-induced dissociation approach showed that this pretreatment could result in negligible ion suppression from the extracted sample and could produce cleaner samples when compared with the protein precipitation. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.12–1200.0 ng/mL for peramivir. The method was validated and successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after peramivir was orally and intravenously administered to Sprague–Dawley rats.

Abstract

A simple HPLC–MS/MS method has been developed for the determination of peramivir in rat plasma in the present study. The analytes were separated on a C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source was applied for the detection. A phospholipid-free cartridge solid-phase extraction was used to pretreat the plasma and eliminate the endogenous phospholipid. The in-source collision-induced dissociation approach showed that this pretreatment could result in negligible ion suppression from the extracted sample and could produce cleaner samples when compared with the protein precipitation. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.12–1200.0 ng/mL for peramivir. The method was validated and successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after peramivir was orally and intravenously administered to Sprague–Dawley rats.

UPLC-HR-MS/MS-based determination study on the metabolism of four synthetic cannabinoids, ADB-FUBICA, AB-FUBICA, AB-BICA and ADB-BICA, by human liver microsomes

Since 2012, several cannabimimetic indazole and indole derivatives with valine amino acid amide residue have emerged in the illicit drug market, and have gradually replaced the old generations of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) with naphthyl or adamantine groups. Among them, ADB-FUBICA [N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H–indole-3-carboxamide], AB-FUBICA [N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H–indole-3-carboxamide], AB-BICA [N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-benzyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide] and ADB-BICA [N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-benzyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide] were detected in China recently, but unfortunately no information about their in vitro human metabolism is available. Therefore, biomonitoring studies to screen their consumption lack any information about the potential biomarkers (e.g. metabolites) to target. To bridge this gap, we investigated their phase I metabolism by incubating with human liver microsomes, and the metabolites were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–high resolution–tandem mass spectrometry. Metabolites generated by N-dealkylation and hydroxylation on the 1-amino-alkyl moiety were found to be predominant for all these four substances, and others which underwent hydroxylation, amide hydrolysis and dehydrogenation were also observed in our investigation. Based on our research, we recommend that the N-dealkylation and hydroxylation metabolites are suitable and appropriate analytical markers for monitoring their intake.

Abstract

Since 2012, several cannabimimetic indazole and indole derivatives with valine amino acid amide residue have emerged in the illicit drug market, and have gradually replaced the old generations of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) with naphthyl or adamantine groups. Among them, ADB-FUBICA [N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H–indole-3-carboxamide], AB-FUBICA [N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H–indole-3-carboxamide], AB-BICA [N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-benzyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide] and ADB-BICA [N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-benzyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide] were detected in China recently, but unfortunately no information about their in vitro human metabolism is available. Therefore, biomonitoring studies to screen their consumption lack any information about the potential biomarkers (e.g. metabolites) to target. To bridge this gap, we investigated their phase I metabolism by incubating with human liver microsomes, and the metabolites were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–high resolution–tandem mass spectrometry. Metabolites generated by N-dealkylation and hydroxylation on the 1-amino-alkyl moiety were found to be predominant for all these four substances, and others which underwent hydroxylation, amide hydrolysis and dehydrogenation were also observed in our investigation. Based on our research, we recommend that the N-dealkylation and hydroxylation metabolites are suitable and appropriate analytical markers for monitoring their intake.

A review of bioanalytical quantitative methods for selected sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P1) modulators provide an emerging therapeutic approach for various autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and psoriasis. Fingolimod is the first approved orally active, selective and potent drug of this class. Other drugs belonging to this class include siponimod, ponesimod, ceralifimod, amiselimod, CS-0777 and GSK2018682. However, owing to the high protein binding, polarity and zwitter-ionic nature of the phosphate metabolite of parent drugs, it becomes challenging to optimize the extraction method for this class of compounds. Although, there are individual published bioanalytical methods for the analysis of selected S1P1 modulators to support preclinical and clinical drug development, no extensive review compiling all the bioanalytical methods for the important drugs in the class is available. Thus, we attempted to prepare a comprehensive review on various bioanalytical methods for selected S1P1 modulators which will provide all the relevant bioanalytical information as required by bioanalytical researchers. This review focuses on the various liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry methods that have been used to quantify S1P1 modulators in various biological matrices. Extraction methods included liquid–liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction and one-step protein precipitation for extracting the analytes. This review captures key information regarding sample processing options and chromatographic/detection conditions.

Abstract

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P1) modulators provide an emerging therapeutic approach for various autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and psoriasis. Fingolimod is the first approved orally active, selective and potent drug of this class. Other drugs belonging to this class include siponimod, ponesimod, ceralifimod, amiselimod, CS-0777 and GSK2018682. However, owing to the high protein binding, polarity and zwitter-ionic nature of the phosphate metabolite of parent drugs, it becomes challenging to optimize the extraction method for this class of compounds. Although, there are individual published bioanalytical methods for the analysis of selected S1P1 modulators to support preclinical and clinical drug development, no extensive review compiling all the bioanalytical methods for the important drugs in the class is available. Thus, we attempted to prepare a comprehensive review on various bioanalytical methods for selected S1P1 modulators which will provide all the relevant bioanalytical information as required by bioanalytical researchers. This review focuses on the various liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry methods that have been used to quantify S1P1 modulators in various biological matrices. Extraction methods included liquid–liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction and one-step protein precipitation for extracting the analytes. This review captures key information regarding sample processing options and chromatographic/detection conditions.

Anti-inflammatory activities and glycerophospholipids metabolism in KLA-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum

Alpinia officinarum is used for its anti-inflammatory activity historically in China. Diarylheptanoids isolated from A. officinarum play important biological roles in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory disorders. Seven diarylheptanoids (1–7) were isolated from A. officinarum. The cell viabilities and anti-inflammatory activities of diarylheptanoids were evaluated by MTT assay and tumor necrosis factor-α production in Kdo2-lipid A-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. The relationships between their anti-inflammatories and structure-activities are discussed. The results indicated that compounds 1 and 3–7 had significant anti-inflammatory activities. The relationships between inflammation and phospholipids metabolism were elucidated by multivariate data analysis. Twenty-two potential biomarkers were identified in inflammatory group vs. blank group, and 11 potential biomarkers were identified for inflammatory group vs. drug-treatment groups. Ten common phospholipids were characterized. On the basis of a previous study in our laboratory, we found that phosphatidylethanolamine (18:0/18:1) might be the important glycerophospholipid biomarker in inflammation. In this study, we firstly combined anti-inflammatory activities and glycerophospholipids changes of traditional Chinese medicine. This work suggests that the anti-inflammatory activities of diarylheptanoids might be significantly related to glycerophospholipids and could provide a useful database for investigating the anti-inflammatory effects of traditional Chinese medicine.

Abstract

Alpinia officinarum is used for its anti-inflammatory activity historically in China. Diarylheptanoids isolated from A. officinarum play important biological roles in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory disorders. Seven diarylheptanoids (1–7) were isolated from A. officinarum. The cell viabilities and anti-inflammatory activities of diarylheptanoids were evaluated by MTT assay and tumor necrosis factor-α production in Kdo2-lipid A-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. The relationships between their anti-inflammatories and structure-activities are discussed. The results indicated that compounds 1 and 3–7 had significant anti-inflammatory activities. The relationships between inflammation and phospholipids metabolism were elucidated by multivariate data analysis. Twenty-two potential biomarkers were identified in inflammatory group vs. blank group, and 11 potential biomarkers were identified for inflammatory group vs. drug-treatment groups. Ten common phospholipids were characterized. On the basis of a previous study in our laboratory, we found that phosphatidylethanolamine (18:0/18:1) might be the important glycerophospholipid biomarker in inflammation. In this study, we firstly combined anti-inflammatory activities and glycerophospholipids changes of traditional Chinese medicine. This work suggests that the anti-inflammatory activities of diarylheptanoids might be significantly related to glycerophospholipids and could provide a useful database for investigating the anti-inflammatory effects of traditional Chinese medicine.

A rapid and simple HPTLC assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of capecitabine in colorectal cancer patients

Capecitabine is a prodrug of 5-flurouracil, employed as a broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agent. It is also used as monotherapy or a combination chemotherapy agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Capecitabine is administered in combination with oxaliplatin and hence it is essential to determine that co-administration does not affect its metabolism. To determine the plasma concentration of capecitabine a simple HPTLC method was developed and validated. Blood samples from 12 patients with colorectal cancer were collected and analyzed by the HPTLC method with a reference internal standard. Out of these 12 patients, six were treated with capecitabine monotherapy and another six were treated with capecitabine + oxaliplatin combination therapy. The results of analysis indicated that there was no significant drug–drug interaction and the co-administration of oxaliplatin did not affect the metabolism of capecitabine. This method is sensitive, robust and specific and allows analysis of multiple samples simultaneously, making it suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring of capecitabine.

Abstract

Capecitabine is a prodrug of 5-flurouracil, employed as a broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agent. It is also used as monotherapy or a combination chemotherapy agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Capecitabine is administered in combination with oxaliplatin and hence it is essential to determine that co-administration does not affect its metabolism. To determine the plasma concentration of capecitabine a simple HPTLC method was developed and validated. Blood samples from 12 patients with colorectal cancer were collected and analyzed by the HPTLC method with a reference internal standard. Out of these 12 patients, six were treated with capecitabine monotherapy and another six were treated with capecitabine + oxaliplatin combination therapy. The results of analysis indicated that there was no significant drug–drug interaction and the co-administration of oxaliplatin did not affect the metabolism of capecitabine. This method is sensitive, robust and specific and allows analysis of multiple samples simultaneously, making it suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring of capecitabine.

Simple determination of betaine, L-carnitine and choline in human urine using self-packed column and column-switching ion chromatography with non-suppressed conductivity detection

A sequential on-line extraction, clean-up and separation system for the determination of betaine, L-carnitine and choline in human urine using column-switching ion chromatography with non-suppressed conductivity detection was developed in this work. Self-packed pretreatment column (50 mm×4.6 mm, i.d.) was used for the extraction and clean-up of betaine, L-carnitine and choline. The separation was achieved using self-packed cationic exchange column (150 mm×4.6 mm, i.d.), followed by non-suppressed conductivity detection. Under optimized experimental conditions, the developed method presented good analytical performance, with excellent linearity in ranged of 0.60-100 μg mL-1 for betaine, 0.75-100 μg mL-1 for L-carnitine and 0.50-100 μg mL-1 for choline, with all correlation coefficient (R2) above 0.99 in urine. The limits of detection (LOD) were of 0.15 μg mL-1 for betaine and 0.20 μg mL-1 for L-carnitine and 0.09 μg mL-1 for choline. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision for all quality controls were within ±10.32% and ±9.05%, respectively. Satisfactory recovery was observed between 92.8% and 102.0%. The validated method was successfully applied to the detection of urinary samples from 10 healthy people. The values detected in human urine using the proposed method had a good agreement with the measurement reported previously.

Abstract

A sequential on-line extraction, clean-up and separation system for the determination of betaine, L-carnitine and choline in human urine using column-switching ion chromatography with non-suppressed conductivity detection was developed in this work. Self-packed pretreatment column (50 mm×4.6 mm, i.d.) was used for the extraction and clean-up of betaine, L-carnitine and choline. The separation was achieved using self-packed cationic exchange column (150 mm×4.6 mm, i.d.), followed by non-suppressed conductivity detection. Under optimized experimental conditions, the developed method presented good analytical performance, with excellent linearity in ranged of 0.60-100 μg mL-1 for betaine, 0.75-100 μg mL-1 for L-carnitine and 0.50-100 μg mL-1 for choline, with all correlation coefficient (R2) above 0.99 in urine. The limits of detection (LOD) were of 0.15 μg mL-1 for betaine and 0.20 μg mL-1 for L-carnitine and 0.09 μg mL-1 for choline. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision for all quality controls were within ±10.32% and ±9.05%, respectively. Satisfactory recovery was observed between 92.8% and 102.0%. The validated method was successfully applied to the detection of urinary samples from 10 healthy people. The values detected in human urine using the proposed method had a good agreement with the measurement reported previously.

Bioassay, determination and separation of enantiomers of atenolol by direct and indirect approaches using liquid chromatography: A review

Atenolol, a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is a chiral compound used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and to treat hypertension, coronary heart disease, arrhythmias, sinus tachycardia and myocardial infarction, where it acts preferentially upon the β-adrenergic receptors in the heart. It is marketed as a racemate, but only the (S)-enantiomer of (RS)-atenolol is responsible for the β-adrenoceptor blocking activity. Different chromatographic methods have been applied for the separation and determination of enantiomers. In this article a review is presented on liquid chromatographic methods for enantioseparation of (RS)-atenolol by both direct and indirect approaches involving practical applications of several chiral stationary phases, chiral derivatization reagents and ligand exchange and impregnation methods. These include methods using both HPLC and TLC for separation, determination and bioassay of enantiomers of atenolol. In addition, some aspects of enantioseparation under achiral phases of liquid chromatography have been briefly mentioned as applicable to (RS)-atenolol. This review provides current available enantioseparation choices not only for (RS)-atenolol but also for other applicable racemic drugs.

Abstract

Atenolol, a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is a chiral compound used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and to treat hypertension, coronary heart disease, arrhythmias, sinus tachycardia and myocardial infarction, where it acts preferentially upon the β-adrenergic receptors in the heart. It is marketed as a racemate, but only the (S)-enantiomer of (RS)-atenolol is responsible for the β-adrenoceptor blocking activity. Different chromatographic methods have been applied for the separation and determination of enantiomers. In this article a review is presented on liquid chromatographic methods for enantioseparation of (RS)-atenolol by both direct and indirect approaches involving practical applications of several chiral stationary phases, chiral derivatization reagents and ligand exchange and impregnation methods. These include methods using both HPLC and TLC for separation, determination and bioassay of enantiomers of atenolol. In addition, some aspects of enantioseparation under achiral phases of liquid chromatography have been briefly mentioned as applicable to (RS)-atenolol. This review provides current available enantioseparation choices not only for (RS)-atenolol but also for other applicable racemic drugs.