Ion exchange column capacities. Predicting retention behavior of open tubular columns coated with the same phase

Publication date: 18 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1550
Author(s): Weixiong Huang, Christopher A. Pohl, Purnendu K. Dasgupta
We discuss the reported capacities of available packed ion exchange columns and the different methods used for their measurement. We outline basic considerations related to both packed and open tubular columns based on ion exchange latex particles.There is a large body of information covering the retention behavior of packed ion exchange columns based on ion exchange latex particles. We propose a parameter γiex, which is the ion exchange capacity of a column (packed or open tubular) per unit liquid volume present in the column (including accessible volume within pores) and show that the retention factor for any given ion is directly related to γiex. On this basis, if based on the same type of latex, the behavior of one type of column can be reasonably predicted from the known behavior of the other, even when the absolute capacities differ by more than 5 orders of magnitude.

Publication date: 18 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1550

Author(s): Weixiong Huang, Christopher A. Pohl, Purnendu K. Dasgupta

We discuss the reported capacities of available packed ion exchange columns and the different methods used for their measurement. We outline basic considerations related to both packed and open tubular columns based on ion exchange latex particles. There is a large body of information covering the retention behavior of packed ion exchange columns based on ion exchange latex particles. We propose a parameter γ iex , which is the ion exchange capacity of a column (packed or open tubular) per unit liquid volume present in the column (including accessible volume within pores) and show that the retention factor for any given ion is directly related to γ iex . On this basis, if based on the same type of latex, the behavior of one type of column can be reasonably predicted from the known behavior of the other, even when the absolute capacities differ by more than 5 orders of magnitude.





Reversed phase ion-pair chromatographic separation of sugar alcohols by complexation with molybdate ion

Publication date: 27 April 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1547
Author(s): Tomoko Kemmei, Shuji Kodama, Atsushi Yamamoto, Yoshinori Inoue, Kazuichi Hayakawa
In this study, we developed a simple and sensitive reversed phase ion-pair chromatographic method for the analysis of C4-C6 sugar alcohols. The method is based on the on-line complexation of sugar alcohols with molybdate ion. The resulting dinuclear anionic complexes can be separated on a reversed-phase C18 column using tetrabutylammonium chloride as an ion-pairing reagent. The mobile phase (pH 3.1) consisted of 0.1 mM disodium molybdate, 1 mM hydrochloric acid and 0.4 mM tetrabutylammonium chloride – 10% v/v methanol. By complexing with molybdate ion, sugar alcohols can be detected by their UV absorption at 247 nm with high resolution and sensitivity. The quantification limits of the examined sugar alcohols calculated at S/N = 10 were 0.1 mM for erythritol and xylitol and 0.01 mM for arabitol, sorbitol, mannitol and dulcitol. The detector response was linear over three orders of magnitude of sugar alcohol concentration. The proposed method was successfully applied to measure sugar alcohols in health drinks, eyedrops and mouthwashes.

Publication date: 27 April 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1547

Author(s): Tomoko Kemmei, Shuji Kodama, Atsushi Yamamoto, Yoshinori Inoue, Kazuichi Hayakawa

In this study, we developed a simple and sensitive reversed phase ion-pair chromatographic method for the analysis of C4-C6 sugar alcohols. The method is based on the on-line complexation of sugar alcohols with molybdate ion. The resulting dinuclear anionic complexes can be separated on a reversed-phase C18 column using tetrabutylammonium chloride as an ion-pairing reagent. The mobile phase (pH 3.1) consisted of 0.1 mM disodium molybdate, 1 mM hydrochloric acid and 0.4 mM tetrabutylammonium chloride – 10% v/v methanol. By complexing with molybdate ion, sugar alcohols can be detected by their UV absorption at 247 nm with high resolution and sensitivity. The quantification limits of the examined sugar alcohols calculated at S/N = 10 were 0.1 mM for erythritol and xylitol and 0.01 mM for arabitol, sorbitol, mannitol and dulcitol. The detector response was linear over three orders of magnitude of sugar alcohol concentration. The proposed method was successfully applied to measure sugar alcohols in health drinks, eyedrops and mouthwashes.





Development of a fast and simple gas chromatographic protocol based on the combined use of alkyl chloroformate and solid phase microextraction for the assay of polyamines in human urine

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549
Author(s): Attilio Naccarato, Rosangela Elliani, Brunella Cavaliere, Giovanni Sindona, Antonio Tagarelli
Polyamines are aliphatic amines with low molecular weight that are widely recognized as one of the most important cancer biomarkers for early diagnosis and treatment. The goal of the work herein presented is the development of a rapid and simple method for the quantification of free polyamines (i.e., putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine) and N-monoacetylated polyamines (i.e., N1-Acetylspermidine, N8-Acetylspermidine, and N1-Acetylspermine) in human urine. A preliminary derivatization with propyl chloroformate combined with the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) allowed for an easy and automatable protocol involving minimal sample handling and no consumption of organic solvents. The affinity of the analytes toward five commercial SPME coatings was evaluated in univariate mode, and the best result in terms of analyte extraction was achieved using the divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber. The variables affecting the performance of SPME analysis were optimized by the multivariate approach of experimental design and, in particular, using a central composite design (CCD). The optimal working conditions in terms of response values are the following: extraction temperature 40 °C, extraction time of 15 min and no addition of NaCl. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode. The developed method was validated according to the guidelines issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The satisfactory performances reached in terms of linearity, sensitivity (LOQs between 0.01 and 0.1 μg/mL), matrix effect (68–121%), accuracy, and precision (inter-day values between −24% and +16% and in the range 3.3–28.4%, respectively) make the proposed protocol suitable to be adopted for quantification of these important biomarkers in urine samples.

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549

Author(s): Attilio Naccarato, Rosangela Elliani, Brunella Cavaliere, Giovanni Sindona, Antonio Tagarelli

Polyamines are aliphatic amines with low molecular weight that are widely recognized as one of the most important cancer biomarkers for early diagnosis and treatment. The goal of the work herein presented is the development of a rapid and simple method for the quantification of free polyamines (i.e., putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine) and N-monoacetylated polyamines (i.e., N 1-Acetylspermidine, N 8-Acetylspermidine, and N 1-Acetylspermine) in human urine. A preliminary derivatization with propyl chloroformate combined with the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) allowed for an easy and automatable protocol involving minimal sample handling and no consumption of organic solvents. The affinity of the analytes toward five commercial SPME coatings was evaluated in univariate mode, and the best result in terms of analyte extraction was achieved using the divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber. The variables affecting the performance of SPME analysis were optimized by the multivariate approach of experimental design and, in particular, using a central composite design (CCD). The optimal working conditions in terms of response values are the following: extraction temperature 40 °C, extraction time of 15 min and no addition of NaCl. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode. The developed method was validated according to the guidelines issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The satisfactory performances reached in terms of linearity, sensitivity (LOQs between 0.01 and 0.1 μg/mL), matrix effect (68–121%), accuracy, and precision (inter-day values between −24% and +16% and in the range 3.3–28.4%, respectively) make the proposed protocol suitable to be adopted for quantification of these important biomarkers in urine samples.





A monolithic column based on covalent cross-linked polymer gels for online extraction and analysis of trace aflatoxins in food sample

Publication date: 4 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1548
Author(s): Tianfu Wei, Zhengyi Chen, Gongke Li, Zhuomin Zhang
Aflatoxins are highly toxic mycotoxin contamination, which pose serious food safety incidents. It is very important to precisely and rapidly determine trace aflatoxins in food. In this study, we designed porous monolithic column based on covalent cross-linked polymer gels for online extraction and analysis of trace aflatoxins in food samples with complicated matrices coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). The prepared monolithic column showed excellent enrichment performance due to its good permeability, good reproducibility and long life span. The study of adsorption mechanism suggested that the excellent enrichment performance of this monolithic column was attributed to the multiple effect of π-π stacking interaction, hydrophobic effect and steric effect. When the online analytical method was applied for the determine of trace aflatoxins in real food samples, aflatoxins G1 and aflatoxins B1 could be actually found in one positive bean sauce sample and quantified to be 32.8 and 26.4 μg/kg, respectively. Aflatoxins G1 in one bean sample could be also found and quantified to be 25.9 μg/kg. The low detection limits of the developed method were achieved in range of 0.08-0.2 μg/kg. And the recoveries for spiked samples were in range from 76.1 to 113% with RSDs of 1.1-9.6%. The developed method was proved to be a promising method for online enrichment and analysis of trace aflatoxins in complicated food samples.

Publication date: 4 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1548

Author(s): Tianfu Wei, Zhengyi Chen, Gongke Li, Zhuomin Zhang

Aflatoxins are highly toxic mycotoxin contamination, which pose serious food safety incidents. It is very important to precisely and rapidly determine trace aflatoxins in food. In this study, we designed porous monolithic column based on covalent cross-linked polymer gels for online extraction and analysis of trace aflatoxins in food samples with complicated matrices coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). The prepared monolithic column showed excellent enrichment performance due to its good permeability, good reproducibility and long life span. The study of adsorption mechanism suggested that the excellent enrichment performance of this monolithic column was attributed to the multiple effect of π-π stacking interaction, hydrophobic effect and steric effect. When the online analytical method was applied for the determine of trace aflatoxins in real food samples, aflatoxins G1 and aflatoxins B1 could be actually found in one positive bean sauce sample and quantified to be 32.8 and 26.4 μg/kg, respectively. Aflatoxins G1 in one bean sample could be also found and quantified to be 25.9 μg/kg. The low detection limits of the developed method were achieved in range of 0.08-0.2 μg/kg. And the recoveries for spiked samples were in range from 76.1 to 113% with RSDs of 1.1-9.6%. The developed method was proved to be a promising method for online enrichment and analysis of trace aflatoxins in complicated food samples.





Multi-class multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs in meat using enhanced matrix removal lipid cleanup and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549
Author(s): Limian Zhao, Derick Lucas, David Long, Bruce Richter, Joan Stevens
This study presents the development and validation of a quantitation method for the analysis of multi-class, multi-residue veterinary drugs using lipid removal cleanup cartridges, enhanced matrix removal lipid (EMR-Lipid), for different meat matrices by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection. Meat samples were extracted using a two-step solid-liquid extraction followed by pass-through sample cleanup. The method was optimized based on the buffer and solvent composition, solvent additive additions, and EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The developed method was then validated in five meat matrices, porcine muscle, bovine muscle, bovine liver, bovine kidney and chicken liver to evaluate the method performance characteristics, such as absolute recoveries and precision at three spiking levels, calibration curve linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ) and matrix effect. The results showed that >90% of veterinary drug analytes achieved satisfactory recovery results of 60–120%. Over 97% analytes achieved excellent reproducibility results (relative standard deviation (RSD) < 20%), and the LOQs were 1–5 μg/kg in the evaluated meat matrices. The matrix co-extractive removal efficiency by weight provided by EMR-lipid cartridge cleanup was 42–58% in samples. The post column infusion study showed that the matrix ion suppression was reduced for samples with the EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The reduced matrix ion suppression effect was also confirmed with <15% frequency of compounds with significant quantitative ion suppression (>30%) for all tested veterinary drugs in all of meat matrices. The results showed that the two-step solid-liquid extraction provides efficient extraction for the entire spectrum of veterinary drugs, including the difficult classes such as tetracyclines, beta-lactams etc. EMR-Lipid cartridges after extraction provided efficient sample cleanup with easy streamlined protocol and minimal impacts on analytes recovery, improving method reliability and consistency.

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549

Author(s): Limian Zhao, Derick Lucas, David Long, Bruce Richter, Joan Stevens

This study presents the development and validation of a quantitation method for the analysis of multi-class, multi-residue veterinary drugs using lipid removal cleanup cartridges, enhanced matrix removal lipid (EMR-Lipid), for different meat matrices by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection. Meat samples were extracted using a two-step solid-liquid extraction followed by pass-through sample cleanup. The method was optimized based on the buffer and solvent composition, solvent additive additions, and EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The developed method was then validated in five meat matrices, porcine muscle, bovine muscle, bovine liver, bovine kidney and chicken liver to evaluate the method performance characteristics, such as absolute recoveries and precision at three spiking levels, calibration curve linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ) and matrix effect. The results showed that >90% of veterinary drug analytes achieved satisfactory recovery results of 60–120%. Over 97% analytes achieved excellent reproducibility results (relative standard deviation (RSD) < 20%), and the LOQs were 1–5 μg/kg in the evaluated meat matrices. The matrix co-extractive removal efficiency by weight provided by EMR-lipid cartridge cleanup was 42–58% in samples. The post column infusion study showed that the matrix ion suppression was reduced for samples with the EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The reduced matrix ion suppression effect was also confirmed with <15% frequency of compounds with significant quantitative ion suppression (>30%) for all tested veterinary drugs in all of meat matrices. The results showed that the two-step solid-liquid extraction provides efficient extraction for the entire spectrum of veterinary drugs, including the difficult classes such as tetracyclines, beta-lactams etc. EMR-Lipid cartridges after extraction provided efficient sample cleanup with easy streamlined protocol and minimal impacts on analytes recovery, improving method reliability and consistency.





Development of an analytical method for urocanic acid isomers in fish based on reactive extraction cleanup and chaotropic chromatography techniques

Publication date: 4 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1548
Author(s): Jian-Jun Zhong, Ningbo Liao, Mingfeng He, Yunfeng Pu, Donghong Liu
Urocanic acid (UA), existing in trans- or cis-isoform, is of fairly recent interest to food researchers because of its potential public health hazards of scombrotoxicity and immunotoxicity, as well as associating with fish spoilage. This work is among the first efforts to study the analytical chemistry of UA in fish. With 0.6 M perchloric acid UA was extracted, and co-extracted fish matrix components were efficiently removed through a reactive extraction of UA. The optimum conditions for the reactive extraction, which allowed an 80% recovery of UA, were sample pH adjustment to 9, twice extractions with 32% (w/w) di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphate in hexanol, and a back-extraction with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid at 1:1 phase ratio. A chaotropic hexafluorophosphate salt was added to acidic water-acetonitrile mobile phases to improve the reversed-phase chromatography of UA, which otherwise was poorly retained. Optimum separation conditions were obtained for fish samples and enabled a fast (10 min), convenient-to-use chromatography that clearly outperforms cumbersome legacy ion-pair chromatography. Intended for routine use in our laboratory, the proposed method passed an in-house validation test for linearity, matrix effect (on reactive extraction), accuracy, precision, and detectability.

Publication date: 4 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1548

Author(s): Jian-Jun Zhong, Ningbo Liao, Mingfeng He, Yunfeng Pu, Donghong Liu

Urocanic acid (UA), existing in trans- or cis-isoform, is of fairly recent interest to food researchers because of its potential public health hazards of scombrotoxicity and immunotoxicity, as well as associating with fish spoilage. This work is among the first efforts to study the analytical chemistry of UA in fish. With 0.6 M perchloric acid UA was extracted, and co-extracted fish matrix components were efficiently removed through a reactive extraction of UA. The optimum conditions for the reactive extraction, which allowed an 80% recovery of UA, were sample pH adjustment to 9, twice extractions with 32% (w/w) di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphate in hexanol, and a back-extraction with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid at 1:1 phase ratio. A chaotropic hexafluorophosphate salt was added to acidic water-acetonitrile mobile phases to improve the reversed-phase chromatography of UA, which otherwise was poorly retained. Optimum separation conditions were obtained for fish samples and enabled a fast (10 min), convenient-to-use chromatography that clearly outperforms cumbersome legacy ion-pair chromatography. Intended for routine use in our laboratory, the proposed method passed an in-house validation test for linearity, matrix effect (on reactive extraction), accuracy, precision, and detectability.





Feasibility study for high-resolution multi-component separation of protein mixture using a cation-exchange cuboid packed-bed device

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549
Author(s): Guoqiang Chen, Alisha Gerrior, Raja Ghosh
In recent papers we have discussed the optimization of design and operating conditions for cuboid packed-bed device for chromatographic separations. The efficiency metrics used in these studies included the number of theoretical plates per unit bed height as well as attributes of flow-through and eluted peaks. These studies were carried out using equivalent columns as benchmarks. The cuboid packed-bed devices consistently outperformed the columns in terms of the above metrics. The current study examines how well, or indeed if at all these superior efficiency metrics translate to superiority in multi-component protein separation. Cation exchange resin was examined in the current study using appropriate multi-component model protein system which was chosen with close isoelectric points to make the separation challenging. Effects of operating and experimental parameters such as flow rate, loop size and linear gradient length on separation performance were systematically investigated. Separation metrics examined included peak width, tailing factor, asymmetry factor and resolution of separated protein peaks. The results obtained showed that the cation exchange cuboid packed-bed device significantly outperformed its equivalent commercial column (e.g., the number of theoretical plates per unit bed height was 8636/m for the cuboid packed-bed device as opposed to 1480/m for the column at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min). The difference in efficiency was particularly high at lower flow rate and when shorter gradients were employed. The results suggest that the cuboid packed-bed devices could potentially have promising application in preparative separations such as biopharmaceutical purifications.

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549

Author(s): Guoqiang Chen, Alisha Gerrior, Raja Ghosh

In recent papers we have discussed the optimization of design and operating conditions for cuboid packed-bed device for chromatographic separations. The efficiency metrics used in these studies included the number of theoretical plates per unit bed height as well as attributes of flow-through and eluted peaks. These studies were carried out using equivalent columns as benchmarks. The cuboid packed-bed devices consistently outperformed the columns in terms of the above metrics. The current study examines how well, or indeed if at all these superior efficiency metrics translate to superiority in multi-component protein separation. Cation exchange resin was examined in the current study using appropriate multi-component model protein system which was chosen with close isoelectric points to make the separation challenging. Effects of operating and experimental parameters such as flow rate, loop size and linear gradient length on separation performance were systematically investigated. Separation metrics examined included peak width, tailing factor, asymmetry factor and resolution of separated protein peaks. The results obtained showed that the cation exchange cuboid packed-bed device significantly outperformed its equivalent commercial column (e.g., the number of theoretical plates per unit bed height was 8636/m for the cuboid packed-bed device as opposed to 1480/m for the column at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min). The difference in efficiency was particularly high at lower flow rate and when shorter gradients were employed. The results suggest that the cuboid packed-bed devices could potentially have promising application in preparative separations such as biopharmaceutical purifications.





Systematic profiling and comparison of the lipidomes from Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng by ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry and ion mobility-derived collision cross section measurement

Publication date: 4 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1548
Author(s): Xiaojian Shi, Wenzhi Yang, Shi Qiu, Jinjun Hou, Wanying Wu, Dean Guo
Lipidomics currently is still confronted with challenges from chromatographic separation and lipids identification. Here we report a lipidomics platform by integrating ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/QTOF-MS) and collision cross section (CCS) measurement using ion mobility spectroscopy/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IMS/QTOF-MS), aiming to enhance the profiling performance and identification reliability of lipids. The lipidomes extracted from three congeneric Panax species (P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng) by methyl tert-butyl ether are comprehensively profiled and compared by use of this platform. A potent UHPSFC/QTOF-MS approach was developed on a 1.7-μm particles packed Torus 2-PIC column using CH3OH (in CO2) as a modifier and CH3OH/0.2 mM ammonium acetate as the makeup liquid, enabling well resolution of six lipid subclasses by both positive and negative MSE modes. In contrast to the reversed-phase chromatography, “normal-phase” like elution order and better resolution of polar lipids and some lipid isomers were achieved by UHPSFC separation. Pattern recognition chemometric analysis of 60 batches of Ginseng samples ultimately unveiled 24 lipid markers, of which triacylglycerols were the most important. Aside from the automated MS database searching against HMDB and LIPID MAPS, the application of CCS retrieval or CCS prediction improved lipid identification by reducing the possible hits. In conclusion, this integral platform can significantly improve the chromatographic separation and the reliability of lipids identification in lipidomics studies. It is the first report that systematically compares the lipidomic difference of three reputable Panax species, providing useful information for their quality control in addition to ginsenoside analysis.

Publication date: 4 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1548

Author(s): Xiaojian Shi, Wenzhi Yang, Shi Qiu, Jinjun Hou, Wanying Wu, Dean Guo

Lipidomics currently is still confronted with challenges from chromatographic separation and lipids identification. Here we report a lipidomics platform by integrating ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/QTOF-MS) and collision cross section (CCS) measurement using ion mobility spectroscopy/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IMS/QTOF-MS), aiming to enhance the profiling performance and identification reliability of lipids. The lipidomes extracted from three congeneric Panax species (P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng) by methyl tert-butyl ether are comprehensively profiled and compared by use of this platform. A potent UHPSFC/QTOF-MS approach was developed on a 1.7-μm particles packed Torus 2-PIC column using CH3OH (in CO2) as a modifier and CH3OH/0.2 mM ammonium acetate as the makeup liquid, enabling well resolution of six lipid subclasses by both positive and negative MSE modes. In contrast to the reversed-phase chromatography, “normal-phase” like elution order and better resolution of polar lipids and some lipid isomers were achieved by UHPSFC separation. Pattern recognition chemometric analysis of 60 batches of Ginseng samples ultimately unveiled 24 lipid markers, of which triacylglycerols were the most important. Aside from the automated MS database searching against HMDB and LIPID MAPS, the application of CCS retrieval or CCS prediction improved lipid identification by reducing the possible hits. In conclusion, this integral platform can significantly improve the chromatographic separation and the reliability of lipids identification in lipidomics studies. It is the first report that systematically compares the lipidomic difference of three reputable Panax species, providing useful information for their quality control in addition to ginsenoside analysis.





Validation and application of analytical method for glyphosate and glufosinate in foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549
Author(s): Yang Liao, Jean-Marie Berthion, Isabelle Colet, Mathilde Merlo, Alexandre Nougadère, Renwei Hu
A reliable and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous determination of glyphosate and glufosinate in various food products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Based on extraction, derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate and purification on solid phase extraction column, quantification was done by using isotopic-labeled analytes as internal standard and calibration in matrix. Good selectivity and sensitivity were achieved with a limit of quantification of 5 μg/kg. The recoveries of these two pesticides ranged from 91% to 114% with inter-day and relative standard deviation of 3.8–6.1% in five matrices of cereal group spiked at 5, 10, and 20 μg/kg. An accuracy profile was performed for method validation, demonstrating the accuracy and precision of the method for the studied food groups. The verification results in expanded food groups indicated extensive applicability for the analysis of glyphosate and glufosinate. Finally, the developed method was applied to analyze 136 food samples including milk-based baby foods from the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety. Glyphosate residues were detected in two breakfast cereal samples (6.0 and 34 μg/kg). Glufosinate residues were found in a sample of boiled potatoes (9.8 μg/kg). No residues were detected in the other samples, including milk-based baby foods with limits of detection ranging from 1 to 2 μg/kg. The method has been applied for routine national monitoring of glyphosate and glufosinate in various foods.

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549

Author(s): Yang Liao, Jean-Marie Berthion, Isabelle Colet, Mathilde Merlo, Alexandre Nougadère, Renwei Hu

A reliable and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous determination of glyphosate and glufosinate in various food products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Based on extraction, derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate and purification on solid phase extraction column, quantification was done by using isotopic-labeled analytes as internal standard and calibration in matrix. Good selectivity and sensitivity were achieved with a limit of quantification of 5 μg/kg. The recoveries of these two pesticides ranged from 91% to 114% with inter-day and relative standard deviation of 3.8–6.1% in five matrices of cereal group spiked at 5, 10, and 20 μg/kg. An accuracy profile was performed for method validation, demonstrating the accuracy and precision of the method for the studied food groups. The verification results in expanded food groups indicated extensive applicability for the analysis of glyphosate and glufosinate. Finally, the developed method was applied to analyze 136 food samples including milk-based baby foods from the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety. Glyphosate residues were detected in two breakfast cereal samples (6.0 and 34 μg/kg). Glufosinate residues were found in a sample of boiled potatoes (9.8 μg/kg). No residues were detected in the other samples, including milk-based baby foods with limits of detection ranging from 1 to 2 μg/kg. The method has been applied for routine national monitoring of glyphosate and glufosinate in various foods.





Enzyme assay for d-amino acid oxidase using optically gated capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence detection

Publication date: 4 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1548
Author(s): Ning Zhang, Miaomiao Tian, Xin Liu, Li Yang
Because d-amino acids (AAs) play an essential role in the regulation of many processes in living cells, detection of D-AAs and assay of d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) activity are of vital importance in bioanalytical science. However, the reliability and accuracy of DAAO assays could be interfered due to the facts that DAAO presents broad substrate activity towards different D-AAs and there could be abundant L-AA enantiomers in biological samples. In this study we presented the first application of optically gated capillary electrophoresis with LIF detection (OGCE-LIF) for efficient assay of DAAO activity. High repeatability of the OGCE-LIF assay of amino acids (AAs) was achieved with relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 15) less than 1.5% and 2.7% for migration time and peak height, respectively. Under the optimal OGCE-LIF conditions, five pairs of D/L-AA enantiomers were efficiently separated in less than 1 min with low limit of detection of 1.3 μM. Enzymatic assays of DAAO were successfully achieved by detection the substrate consumption with OGCE-LIF, for either single or mixed AA substrates. Kinetic analysis of the parallel oxidation reactions of two different substrates was performed, which was in good agreement with the experimental results. Our study indicates OGCE-LIF can perform rapid and efficient separation of mixed pairs of AA enantiomers and is a promising method for quantitatively assaying DAAO catalyzed reaction with the presence of L-AA enantiomers in the sample. Our study would pave the way for accurate determination of D-AAs and DAAO enzymes in complicated biological samples.

Publication date: 4 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1548

Author(s): Ning Zhang, Miaomiao Tian, Xin Liu, Li Yang

Because d-amino acids (AAs) play an essential role in the regulation of many processes in living cells, detection of D-AAs and assay of d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) activity are of vital importance in bioanalytical science. However, the reliability and accuracy of DAAO assays could be interfered due to the facts that DAAO presents broad substrate activity towards different D-AAs and there could be abundant L-AA enantiomers in biological samples. In this study we presented the first application of optically gated capillary electrophoresis with LIF detection (OGCE-LIF) for efficient assay of DAAO activity. High repeatability of the OGCE-LIF assay of amino acids (AAs) was achieved with relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 15) less than 1.5% and 2.7% for migration time and peak height, respectively. Under the optimal OGCE-LIF conditions, five pairs of D/L-AA enantiomers were efficiently separated in less than 1 min with low limit of detection of 1.3 μM. Enzymatic assays of DAAO were successfully achieved by detection the substrate consumption with OGCE-LIF, for either single or mixed AA substrates. Kinetic analysis of the parallel oxidation reactions of two different substrates was performed, which was in good agreement with the experimental results. Our study indicates OGCE-LIF can perform rapid and efficient separation of mixed pairs of AA enantiomers and is a promising method for quantitatively assaying DAAO catalyzed reaction with the presence of L-AA enantiomers in the sample. Our study would pave the way for accurate determination of D-AAs and DAAO enzymes in complicated biological samples.





Supercritical fluid chromatography versus high performance liquid chromatography for enantiomeric and diastereoisomeric separations on coated polysaccharides-based stationary phases: Application to dihydropyridone derivatives

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549
Author(s): Vanessa Hoguet, Julie Charton, Paul-Emile Hecquet, Chahinaze Lakhmi, Emmanuelle Lipka
For analytical applications, SFC has always remained in the shadow of LC. Analytical enantioseparation of eight dihydropyridone derivatives, was run in both High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. Four polysaccharide based chiral stationary phases namely amylose and cellulose tris(3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate), amylose tris((S)-α-phenylethylcarbamate) and cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) with four mobile phases consisted of either n-hexane/ethanol or propan-2-ol (80:20 v:v) or carbon dioxide/ethanol or propan-2-ol (80:20 v:v) mixtures were investigated under same operatory conditions (temperature and flow-rate). The elution strength, enantioselectivity and resolution were compared in the two methodologies. For these compounds, for most of the conditions, HPLC afforded shorter retention times and a higher resolution than SFC. HPLC appears particularly suitable for the separation of the compounds bearing two chiral centers. For instance compound 7 was baseline resolved on OD-H CSP under n-Hex/EtOH 80/20, with resolution values equal to 2.98, 1.55, 4.52, between the four stereoisomers in less than 17 min, whereas in SFC, this latter is not fully separated in 23 min under similar eluting conditions. After analytical screenings, the best conditions were transposed to semi-preparative scale.

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549

Author(s): Vanessa Hoguet, Julie Charton, Paul-Emile Hecquet, Chahinaze Lakhmi, Emmanuelle Lipka

For analytical applications, SFC has always remained in the shadow of LC. Analytical enantioseparation of eight dihydropyridone derivatives, was run in both High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. Four polysaccharide based chiral stationary phases namely amylose and cellulose tris(3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate), amylose tris((S)-α-phenylethylcarbamate) and cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) with four mobile phases consisted of either n-hexane/ethanol or propan-2-ol (80:20 v:v) or carbon dioxide/ethanol or propan-2-ol (80:20 v:v) mixtures were investigated under same operatory conditions (temperature and flow-rate). The elution strength, enantioselectivity and resolution were compared in the two methodologies. For these compounds, for most of the conditions, HPLC afforded shorter retention times and a higher resolution than SFC. HPLC appears particularly suitable for the separation of the compounds bearing two chiral centers. For instance compound 7 was baseline resolved on OD-H CSP under n-Hex/EtOH 80/20, with resolution values equal to 2.98, 1.55, 4.52, between the four stereoisomers in less than 17 min, whereas in SFC, this latter is not fully separated in 23 min under similar eluting conditions. After analytical screenings, the best conditions were transposed to semi-preparative scale.





Preparative concentration of nucleic acids fragments by capillary isotachophoretic analyzer

Publication date: 4 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1548
Author(s): Vladimíra Datinská, Ivona Voráčová, Jan Berka, František Foret
Sample preparation plays an important role in the DNA analysis workflow. Real samples often include a complex matrix, such as blood and other bodily fluids, or exogenous impurities, e.g., from the scene of crime. Most of the common nucleic acids isolation techniques are based on extractions; however, isotachophoretic focusing has recently attracted some interest for its simplicity and potential for very high enrichment factors and ease of automation. Here, we report on the use of a commercial isotachophoretic instrument for optimization of DNA focusing and preparative fraction collection. In order to achieve a high recovery and enrichment, experimental factors including electric current, sample amount and matrix were investigated experimentally as well as by computer simulation. The sample of a DNA ladder was injected in 30 μl volume and after ITP focusing the DNA zone was recovered using an on-column micropreparative collection valve. The DNA content in the collected sample was verified by fluorescence spectrometry and chip capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection.

Publication date: 4 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1548

Author(s): Vladimíra Datinská, Ivona Voráčová, Jan Berka, František Foret

Sample preparation plays an important role in the DNA analysis workflow. Real samples often include a complex matrix, such as blood and other bodily fluids, or exogenous impurities, e.g., from the scene of crime. Most of the common nucleic acids isolation techniques are based on extractions; however, isotachophoretic focusing has recently attracted some interest for its simplicity and potential for very high enrichment factors and ease of automation. Here, we report on the use of a commercial isotachophoretic instrument for optimization of DNA focusing and preparative fraction collection. In order to achieve a high recovery and enrichment, experimental factors including electric current, sample amount and matrix were investigated experimentally as well as by computer simulation. The sample of a DNA ladder was injected in 30 μl volume and after ITP focusing the DNA zone was recovered using an on-column micropreparative collection valve. The DNA content in the collected sample was verified by fluorescence spectrometry and chip capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection.





QSRR modeling for the chromatographic retention behavior of some β-lactam antibiotics using forward and firefly variable selection algorithms coupled with multiple linear regression

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549
Author(s): Marwa A. Fouad, Enas H. Tolba, Manal A. El-Shal, Ahmed M. El Kerdawy
The justified continuous emerging of new β-lactam antibiotics provokes the need for developing suitable analytical methods that accelerate and facilitate their analysis. A face central composite experimental design was adopted using different levels of phosphate buffer pH, acetonitrile percentage at zero time and after 15 min in a gradient program to obtain the optimum chromatographic conditions for the elution of 31 β-lactam antibiotics. Retention factors were used as the target property to build two QSRR models utilizing the conventional forward selection and the advanced nature-inspired firefly algorithm for descriptor selection, coupled with multiple linear regression. The obtained models showed high performance in both internal and external validation indicating their robustness and predictive ability. Williams-Hotelling test and student’s t-test showed that there is no statistical significant difference between the models’ results. Y-randomization validation showed that the obtained models are due to significant correlation between the selected molecular descriptors and the analytes’ chromatographic retention. These results indicate that the generated FS-MLR and FFA-MLR models are showing comparable quality on both the training and validation levels. They also gave comparable information about the molecular features that influence the retention behavior of β-lactams under the current chromatographic conditions. We can conclude that in some cases simple conventional feature selection algorithm can be used to generate robust and predictive models comparable to that are generated using advanced ones.

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549

Author(s): Marwa A. Fouad, Enas H. Tolba, Manal A. El-Shal, Ahmed M. El Kerdawy

The justified continuous emerging of new β-lactam antibiotics provokes the need for developing suitable analytical methods that accelerate and facilitate their analysis. A face central composite experimental design was adopted using different levels of phosphate buffer pH, acetonitrile percentage at zero time and after 15 min in a gradient program to obtain the optimum chromatographic conditions for the elution of 31 β-lactam antibiotics. Retention factors were used as the target property to build two QSRR models utilizing the conventional forward selection and the advanced nature-inspired firefly algorithm for descriptor selection, coupled with multiple linear regression. The obtained models showed high performance in both internal and external validation indicating their robustness and predictive ability. Williams-Hotelling test and student’s t-test showed that there is no statistical significant difference between the models’ results. Y-randomization validation showed that the obtained models are due to significant correlation between the selected molecular descriptors and the analytes’ chromatographic retention. These results indicate that the generated FS-MLR and FFA-MLR models are showing comparable quality on both the training and validation levels. They also gave comparable information about the molecular features that influence the retention behavior of β-lactams under the current chromatographic conditions. We can conclude that in some cases simple conventional feature selection algorithm can be used to generate robust and predictive models comparable to that are generated using advanced ones.





Utility of a high coverage phenyl-bonding and wide-pore superficially porous particle for the analysis of monoclonal antibodies and related products

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549
Author(s): Balázs Bobály, Matthew Lauber, Alain Beck, Davy Guillarme, Szabolcs Fekete
A wide-pore silica-based superficially porous material with a high coverage phenyl bonding was evaluated for the analysis of monoclonal antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates. This new material is based on 2.7 μm particles having a shell thickness of 0.40 μm and average pore size of approximately 450 Å.Various important features of this reversed phase column technology were explored, including kinetic performance for large biomolecules (i.e. speed of analysis, efficiency and peak capacity), recovery of proteins, selectivity for resolving modifications, and the possibility to reduce the amount of trifluoroacetic acid in the mobile phase. A systematic comparison was also performed with other existing modern wide-pore phases possessing differences in structure/morphology and chemistry.If all these figures of merit are considered, it is clear that this phenyl bonded wide-pore superficially porous stationary phase is one of the most promising materials to have been developed in recent years. Indeed, it offers kinetic performance comparable to the most efficient wide-pore SPP column on the market. In terms of protein recovery, this new phase was found to be superior to silica-based and silica-hybrid C4 bonded materials, particularly with separations performed at sub-80 °C temperature. Under such conditions, it in fact shows recoveries that are quite similar to a divinyl benzene (DVB) polymer-based material. More importantly, due to its unique, high coverage phenyl bonding, it offers additional steric effects and potentially even π-π interactions that yield advantageous selectivity for mAb sub-unit peaks and ADC species as compared to commonly used C4 or C18 bonded phases. Last but not least, mobile phases consisting of only 0.02–0.05% trifluoroacetic acid can be successfully used with this column, without significant loss in recovery and peak capacity.

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549

Author(s): Balázs Bobály, Matthew Lauber, Alain Beck, Davy Guillarme, Szabolcs Fekete

A wide-pore silica-based superficially porous material with a high coverage phenyl bonding was evaluated for the analysis of monoclonal antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates. This new material is based on 2.7 μm particles having a shell thickness of 0.40 μm and average pore size of approximately 450 Å. Various important features of this reversed phase column technology were explored, including kinetic performance for large biomolecules (i.e. speed of analysis, efficiency and peak capacity), recovery of proteins, selectivity for resolving modifications, and the possibility to reduce the amount of trifluoroacetic acid in the mobile phase. A systematic comparison was also performed with other existing modern wide-pore phases possessing differences in structure/morphology and chemistry. If all these figures of merit are considered, it is clear that this phenyl bonded wide-pore superficially porous stationary phase is one of the most promising materials to have been developed in recent years. Indeed, it offers kinetic performance comparable to the most efficient wide-pore SPP column on the market. In terms of protein recovery, this new phase was found to be superior to silica-based and silica-hybrid C4 bonded materials, particularly with separations performed at sub-80 °C temperature. Under such conditions, it in fact shows recoveries that are quite similar to a divinyl benzene (DVB) polymer-based material. More importantly, due to its unique, high coverage phenyl bonding, it offers additional steric effects and potentially even π-π interactions that yield advantageous selectivity for mAb sub-unit peaks and ADC species as compared to commonly used C4 or C18 bonded phases. Last but not least, mobile phases consisting of only 0.02–0.05% trifluoroacetic acid can be successfully used with this column, without significant loss in recovery and peak capacity.





Determination of finasteride and its metabolite in urine by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with field-enhanced sample stacking and sweeping

Publication date: 27 April 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1547
Author(s): Chun-Hsien Chen, Yu-Ying Chao, Yi-Hui Lin, Yen-Ling Chen
The on-line preconcentration technique of field-enhanced sample stacking and sweeping (FESS-sweeping) are combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) to monitor the concentrations of finasteride, which is used in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and its metabolite, finasteride carboxylic acid (M3), in urine samples. DLLME is used to concentrate and eliminate the interferences of urine samples and uses chloroform as an extracting solvent and acetonitrile as a disperser solvent. A high conductivity buffer (HCB) was introduced into capillary and then sample plug (90.7% capillary length) was injected into capillary. After applying voltage, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) swept the analytes from the low conductivity sample solution into HCB. The analytes were concentrated on the field-enhanced sample stacking boundary. The limit of detection for the analytes is 20 ng mL−1. The sensitivity enrichment of finasteride and M3 are 362-fold and 480-fold, respectively, compared with the conventional MEKC method. The on-line preconcentration technique of field-enhanced sample stacking and sweeping possess good selectivity because the endogenous steroid did not interfere the detection of finasteride and M3. The analytical technique is applied to investigate the concentrations in urine samples from patients who have been administered finasteride for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia; the amount of M3 detected in 12 h was 72.69 ± 4.18 μg.

Publication date: 27 April 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1547

Author(s): Chun-Hsien Chen, Yu-Ying Chao, Yi-Hui Lin, Yen-Ling Chen

The on-line preconcentration technique of field-enhanced sample stacking and sweeping (FESS-sweeping) are combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) to monitor the concentrations of finasteride, which is used in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and its metabolite, finasteride carboxylic acid (M3), in urine samples. DLLME is used to concentrate and eliminate the interferences of urine samples and uses chloroform as an extracting solvent and acetonitrile as a disperser solvent. A high conductivity buffer (HCB) was introduced into capillary and then sample plug (90.7% capillary length) was injected into capillary. After applying voltage, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) swept the analytes from the low conductivity sample solution into HCB. The analytes were concentrated on the field-enhanced sample stacking boundary. The limit of detection for the analytes is 20 ng mL−1. The sensitivity enrichment of finasteride and M3 are 362-fold and 480-fold, respectively, compared with the conventional MEKC method. The on-line preconcentration technique of field-enhanced sample stacking and sweeping possess good selectivity because the endogenous steroid did not interfere the detection of finasteride and M3. The analytical technique is applied to investigate the concentrations in urine samples from patients who have been administered finasteride for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia; the amount of M3 detected in 12 h was 72.69 ± 4.18 μg.





High temperature multidimensional gas chromatographic approach for improved separation of triacylglycerols in olive oil

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549
Author(s): Habtewold D. Waktola, Chadin Kulsing, Yada Nolvachai, Philip J. Marriott
Heart-cut multidimensional gas chromatographic (H/C MDGC) methods under suitable flow and high temperature (T) program conditions were developed to separate olive oil triacylglycerols (TAGs). Different column sets were selected for further evaluation, each with relatively short non-polar first dimension (1D) and mid-polar second dimension (2D) columns of high T limits (350 °C). The 1D separation displayed three major groups of peaks in an area ratio of approximately 5:33:62 (of increasing retention), using flame ionisation detection (FID). Four groups of minor peaks, with 2 of them located between the major peaks, were also detected. The H/C fractions of the minor peaks, and sub-sampled regions across the major peaks eluting from the 1D outlet, were cryotrapped at the 2D inlet. The trapped TAGs then underwent temperature programmed 2D separation. Each of the ‘H/C’ zones generally gave 2–5 – and in some cases more – separated peaks of TAGs on the 2D column, under suitable flow condition and phase polarity that resulted in improved separation. Six sub-sampled H/Cs from various regions of the individual peaks from the 1D column were simultaneously trapped and released to 2D, resulting in apparently more than 22 individual TAG peaks. According to their different retention times, different TAGs were revealed within each of the 3 major groups, using H/C sub-sampling. A comprehensive sampling strategy that covers most of the 1D peaks further revealed the presence of more TAGs in the olive oil sample. This tandem column strategy was able to resolve more components than that usually observed on a single column.

Publication date: 11 May 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1549

Author(s): Habtewold D. Waktola, Chadin Kulsing, Yada Nolvachai, Philip J. Marriott

Heart-cut multidimensional gas chromatographic (H/C MDGC) methods under suitable flow and high temperature (T) program conditions were developed to separate olive oil triacylglycerols (TAGs). Different column sets were selected for further evaluation, each with relatively short non-polar first dimension (1D) and mid-polar second dimension (2D) columns of high T limits (350 °C). The 1D separation displayed three major groups of peaks in an area ratio of approximately 5:33:62 (of increasing retention), using flame ionisation detection (FID). Four groups of minor peaks, with 2 of them located between the major peaks, were also detected. The H/C fractions of the minor peaks, and sub-sampled regions across the major peaks eluting from the 1D outlet, were cryotrapped at the 2D inlet. The trapped TAGs then underwent temperature programmed 2D separation. Each of the ‘H/C’ zones generally gave 2–5 – and in some cases more – separated peaks of TAGs on the 2D column, under suitable flow condition and phase polarity that resulted in improved separation. Six sub-sampled H/Cs from various regions of the individual peaks from the 1D column were simultaneously trapped and released to 2D, resulting in apparently more than 22 individual TAG peaks. According to their different retention times, different TAGs were revealed within each of the 3 major groups, using H/C sub-sampling. A comprehensive sampling strategy that covers most of the 1D peaks further revealed the presence of more TAGs in the olive oil sample. This tandem column strategy was able to resolve more components than that usually observed on a single column.





Characterization of plant polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale by multiple chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques

Publication date: 27 April 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1547
Author(s): Huiying Ma, Keke Zhang, Qing Jiang, Diya Dai, Hongli Li, Wentao Bi, David Da Yong Chen
Plant polysaccharides have numerous medicinal functions. Due to the differences in their origins, regions of production, and cultivation conditions, the quality and the functions of polysaccharides can vary significantly. They are macromolecules with large molecular weight (MW) and complex structure, and pose great challenge for the analytical technology used. Taking Dendrobium officinale (DO) from various origins and locations as model samples. In this investigation, mechanochemical extraction method was used to successfully extract polysaccharides from DO using water as solvent, the process is simple, fast (40 s) and with high yield. The MWs of the intact saccharides from calibration curve and light scattering measurement were determined and compared after separation with size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The large polysaccharide was acid hydrolyzed to oligosaccharides and the products were efficiently separated and identified using liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS2). Obvious differences were observed among LC–MS2 chromatograms of digested products, and the chemical structures for the products were proposed based on accurate mass values. More importantly, isomeric digested carbohydrate compounds were explored and characterized. All the chromatographic and mass spectrometric results in this study provided a multi-dimensional characterization, fingerprint analysis, and molecular structure level assessment of plant polysaccharides.

Publication date: 27 April 2018
Source:Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1547

Author(s): Huiying Ma, Keke Zhang, Qing Jiang, Diya Dai, Hongli Li, Wentao Bi, David Da Yong Chen

Plant polysaccharides have numerous medicinal functions. Due to the differences in their origins, regions of production, and cultivation conditions, the quality and the functions of polysaccharides can vary significantly. They are macromolecules with large molecular weight (MW) and complex structure, and pose great challenge for the analytical technology used. Taking Dendrobium officinale (DO) from various origins and locations as model samples. In this investigation, mechanochemical extraction method was used to successfully extract polysaccharides from DO using water as solvent, the process is simple, fast (40 s) and with high yield. The MWs of the intact saccharides from calibration curve and light scattering measurement were determined and compared after separation with size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The large polysaccharide was acid hydrolyzed to oligosaccharides and the products were efficiently separated and identified using liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS2). Obvious differences were observed among LC–MS2 chromatograms of digested products, and the chemical structures for the products were proposed based on accurate mass values. More importantly, isomeric digested carbohydrate compounds were explored and characterized. All the chromatographic and mass spectrometric results in this study provided a multi-dimensional characterization, fingerprint analysis, and molecular structure level assessment of plant polysaccharides.